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This article’s lead section does not adequately summarize key points of its contents. Please consider expanding the lead to provide an accessible overview of all important aspects of the article. Please discuss this issue on the article’smart Card Driver Windows 7 talk page. One of the first smart-card prototypes, created by its inventor Roland Moreno around 1975.
The chip has not yet been miniaturized. Smart cards are made of plastic, generally polyvinyl chloride, but sometimes polyethylene-terephthalate-based polyesters, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene or polycarbonate. Since April 2009, a Japanese company has manufactured reusable financial smart cards made from paper. Smart cards can be contact, contactless, or both.
They can provide personal identification, authentication, data storage, and application processing. In 1968 and 1969 Helmut Gröttrup and Jürgen Dethloff jointly filed patents for the automated chip card.
Roland Moreno patented the memory card concept in 1974. An important patent for smart cards with a microprocessor and memory as used today was filed by Jürgen Dethloff in 1976 and granted as USP 4105156 in 1978.
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Three years later, Motorola used this patent in its «CP8». At that time, Bull had 1,200 patents related to smart cards. In 2001, Bull sold its CP8 division together with its patents to Schlumberger, who subsequently combined its own internal smart card department and CP8 to create Axalto. In 2006, Axalto and Gemplus, at the time the world’s top two smart-card manufacturers, merged and became Gemalto.
The first mass use of the cards was as a telephone card for payment in French payphones, starting in 1983. After the Télécarte, microchips were integrated into all French Carte Bleue debit cards in 1992.
Smart-card-based «electronic purse» systems store funds on the card, so that readers do not need network connectivity. They entered European service in the mid-1990s. Mobile phones are widely used in Europe, so smart cards have become very common. For more details on this topic, see EMV.
The United States started using the EMV technology in 2014. Historically, in 1993 several international payment companies agreed to develop smart-card specifications for debit and credit cards. The first version of the EMV system was released in 1994.
In 1998 the specifications became stable. EMVco’s purpose is to assure the various financial institutions and retailers that the specifications retain backward compatibility with the 1998 version. EMVco upgraded the specifications in 2000 and 2004. The United States has felt pushed to use the technology because of the increase in identity theft.
The credit card information stolen from Target in late 2013 was one of the largest indicators that American credit card information is not safe. Target made the decision on April 30, 2014 that it would try to implement the smart chip technology in order to protect itself from future credit card identity theft. Before 2014, the consensus in America was that there was enough security measures to avoid credit card theft and that the smart chip was not necessary.
The cost of the smart chip technology was significant, which was why most of the corporations did not want to pay for it in the United States. The debate came when online credit theft was insecure enough for the United States to invest in the technology. The adaptation of EMV’s increased significantly in 2015 when the liability shifts occurred in October by the credit card companies. Contactless smart cards do not require physical contact between a card and reader.
They are becoming more popular for payment and ticketing. Typical uses include mass transit and motorway tolls.
Most contactless fare collection systems are incompatible, though the MIFARE Standard card from NXP Semiconductors has a considerable market share in the US and Europe. Smart cards are also being introduced for identification and entitlement by regional, national, and international organizations. These uses include citizen cards, drivers’ licenses, and patient cards. Contactless smart cards are part of ICAO biometric passports to enhance security for international travel. Dimensions similar to those of a credit card.
IEC 7810 standard defines cards as nominally 85. Managed by an administration system, which securely interchanges information and configuration settings with the card, controlling card blacklisting and application-data updates.